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Rhubarb
Rhubarb
ダイオウ Market name:ダイオウ
Photo location:Museum of Materia Medica, Inst. of Nat. Med.
TMPW No.:19929
Rheum palmatum Plant name:Rheum palmatum
Photo location:Yunnan Prov., China
Photo date:1996
Photographer:K. Komatsu

Synonym  
Latin name Rhei Rhizoma
Botanical source: Family name Polygonaceae
Botanical source: Plant name Rheum palmatum Linne, Rheum tanguticum Maximowicz, Rheum officinale Baillon, Rheum coreanum Nakai or their interspecific hybrids.
Part used Dried rhizome
Empirical criteria for quality selection Good one has a characteristic golden yellow pattern and star-like spots. The internal part is stiff and contains oil with a clean aroma. It is sticky when chewed. (NI)
Constituents Anthraquinones:
Chrysophanol, Emodin, Rhein, Aloe-emodin, Physcion, Physcionmonoglucoside, Aloe-emodin-8-monoglucoside, Chrysophanol-1-monoglucoside, Emodin-monoglucoside, Rhein-8-monoglucoside, Sennidin A, Sennidin B, Sennidin C, Rheidin A, Rheidin B, Rheidin C, Palmidin A, Palmidin B, Palmidin C, Palmidin D, Sennoside A, Sennoside B, Sennoside C, Sennoside D, Sennoside E, Sennoside F, Dirhein, Anthrone, Chrysophanol anthrone, Rheinosides;
and the following are metabolites: 8-Glucosylrheinanthrone, Rheinanthrone, Sennidin A-8-monoglucoside, Sennidin B-8-monoglucoside, Sennidin B-8'-monoglucoside, Rhein dianthrone diglucoside

Tannins:
Rhatannin I, Rhatannin II, Torachrysone 8-glucoside, 6-Hydroxymusizin, Lindleyin, Procyanidin B-1 3-O-gallate, (+)-Catechin, (-)-Epicatechin, Epicatechin gallate, Gallocatechin, Gallocatechin gallate, Glucogallin, 2'-O-Cinnamoylglucogallin, Gallic acid, Tetrarin;
(-)-Epicatechin 3-O-gallate, Procyanidin B-2 3,3'-di-O-gallate, RGtannin;
1,2,6-Trigalloyl-glucose, 3-O-Galloylprocyanidin B-1

Stilbenes:
Sect.Rhapontica, Sect.Ribesifornia: Rhaponticin, 3,5-Dihydroxy-4-methoxy stilbene glucoside, Piceid;
3,5,4'-Trihydroxystilbene 4'-glucoside and its 6''-O-gallate

Naphthalenes:
Torachrysone 8-glucoside, 6-Hydroxymusizin and its 6'-Ooxalate
Pharmacological effects Cathartic [extract, rhubarb powder, sennoside A)]. Antibacterial (water extract, aloe-emodin), antifungal (catechin). Decreases urea nitrogen in the blood (rhatannin). Decreases MG level in the blood and the urine (water extract, epicatechin 3-O-gallate, procyanidin B-2 3,3'-di-O-gallate). Antiinflammatory, analgesic (lindleyin). Anticholera toxin (RG-tannin).
Indications It is mild laxative and stomachic and removes blood stasis. In Chinese medicine, it is a key drug for ones with excess syndrome to remove poison, to promote bowel movement, to cure stomachache of constipation, and festering swelling.
Diseases Constipation, Abdominal pain, High fever, Disturbance of consciousness, Diarrhea, Tenesmus, Full stomach, Chill, Red eye, Swelling and pain of the throat, Toothache, Nasal hemorrhage, Hematemesis, Appendicitis, Pyogenic dermatosis, Amenorrhea, Hyperemesis after childbirth
Formulas Inchinkoto , Unpito , Orento , Kagawagedokuzai , Kagenryokakusanippo , Kakketsugedokuto , Kakketsusan'oto , Kamijokito , Kankyoto , kanrento , Kanrendaioto , Kanrendaiokasekkoto , Kikyogedokuto , Kijitsushishidaioshito , Kijitsudaioto , Kippidaiobokushoto , Kyoseihatekigan , Keigairengyoto , Keishikashyakuyakudaioto , Keishikadaioto , Keimeisan , Gohekiin , Kobokusanmotsuto , Kowashakuyakuto , Gomotsudaioto , Saokokaryukotsuboreito , San'oshasinto , San'oshasinto , Shishidaioto , Shijunseiryoin , Shakkan'oshinbuto , Shakuyakuto , Shakuyakutokadaio , Shakuyakukanzobushidaioto , Sekishozuto , Shadojindaioto , Junchoto , Shogedokuto , Jingyobofuto , Seiinrikakuto , Daioukanzouto , Daiobushito , Daiobotanpito , Daibyakuchuin , Jiohanho , Jishusabiho , Jidabokuippo , Jizusoippo , Jizutsuippo , Chuseito , Choijokito , Tsudosan , Tokakujokito , Toryuto , Naisoorento , Nyoshinsan , Hachimisenkiho , Hachimitaigeho , Binrojunkito , Bofutsushosan , Honposhakuyakuto , Ryokakusan , Ryokankyomishingeninoto , Rengyoto , Rengyoto , Compound Rhubarb and Sennna Powder , Fuinto
Meridian tropism Spleen, Stomach, Large intestine, Pericardium
Property Cold
Flavor Bitter
Classification in "Shen-non Ben-cao Jing" Inferior
TCM: Classification Purgatives
TCM: Medicinal effects Purging heat and loosening the bowels, clearing away heat in the blood and toxic materials, removing blood stasis and inducing menstruation.: For fever with constipation, retention of the feces and abdominal pain, dysentery with inadequate discharge from the bowels, jaundice caused by damp-heat, hematemesis, epistaxis, inflammation of eye and swelling of the throat, appendicitis with abdominal pain, boils, sores and abscess, amenorrhea due to blood stasis, traumatic injuries, hemorrhage from the upper gastrointestinal tract, burns.
Remarks Listed in the Japanese Pharmacopoeia 17th ed.
References NI: N. Isshiki, Methods of Quality Evaluation and Preparation of Wakan-yaku [Wakanyaku no ryohi kanbetsu-ho oyobi chosei-ho], Tohodo Shoten, Tokyo, 1987.
DNA sequences of medicinal plants
Gene Region
Nuclear Chloroplast Mitochondria
Botanical source: Plant name 5Ss 18S ITS1 5.8S ITS2 26S others trnH-psbA matK trnK trnK-rps16 trnT-L trnL trnL-F rbcL rpoC1 ndhF others
Rheum palmatum Linné
trnS-trnG
 AY920225
 AY920228
accD
  EU553978
ndhJ
  EU553996
poB2
  EU554025
ycf5
  FJ503037
Rheum tanguticum Maximowicz
trnS-trnG
 AY920224
 AY920229
accD
  EU553979
ndhJ
  EU553997
poB2
  EU554026
ycf5
  FJ503038
Rheum officinale Baillon
CHS
 HM217095
trnS-trnG
 AY920226
 AY920227
accD
  EU553977
 EU840436
ndhJ
  EU553995
poB2
  EU554024
psaA
  EU840352
ycf5
  FJ503045
 GQ435854
 GQ435855
Rheum coreanum Nakai
 

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