||1) Houfu Liu, Junling Yang, Feifei Du, Xiumei Gao, Xutao Ma, Yuhong Huang, Fang Xu, Wei Niu, Fengqing Wang, Yu Mao, Yan Sun, Tong Lu, Changxiao Liu, Boli Zhang, and Chuan Li, Absorption and disposition of ginsenosides after oral administration of Panax notoginseng extract to rats. Drug Metabolism and Disposition, 37: 2290–2298 (2009).
||Ginsenosides were administered to rats, either in the form of Sanqi extract or as pure chemicals. Systemic exposure to ginsenosides Ra3, Rb1, and Rd after oral administration of the extract was significantly greater than that to the other compounds. Considerable colonic deglycosylation of the ginsenosides occurred, but the plasma levels of deglycosylated metabolites were low in rats. Poor membrane permeability and active biliary excretion are the two primary factors limiting systemic exposure to most ginsenosides and their deglycosylated metabolites. [Li et al., Drug Metabolism and Disposition, 37: 2290–2298 (2009)]