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Bupleurum Root
Bupleurum Root
Market name:三島柴胡
Photo location:Museum of Materia Medica, Inst. of Nat. Med.
TMPW No.:15455
Bupleurum chinense or Bupleurum falcatum
Plant name:Bupleurum chinense or Bupleurum falcatum
Photo location:Gansu Prov., China
Photo date:2010
Photographer:K. Komatsu

Latin name Bupleuri Radix
Botanical source: Family name Umbelliferae
Botanical source: Plant name Bupleurum falcatum Linné (IPNI:839147-1)
Part used Root or whole plant
Empirical criteria for quality selection The large roots which are moist and have less fragments of subterranean stems or leaves are good quality. (TN)
Constituents Fatty acids:
Stearic acid, Oleic acid, Linolic acid, Linolenic acid


Saikogenin E, Saikogenin F, Saikogenin G;
B. falcatum: Prosaikogenin F, Prosaikogenin G, Prosaikogenin A, Prosaikogenin D, Saikogenin F, Saikogenin G, Saikogenin A, Saikogenin D, Saikogenin E

Triterpenoid saponins:
Saikosaponin a, Saikosaponin b, Saikosaponin c, Saikosaponin d, Saikosaponin e, Saikosaponin f;
B. falcatum: Saikosaponin a, Saikosaponin d, Saikosaponin b1, Saikosaponin b2, Saikosaponin c

α-Spinasterol, Stigmasterol, ⊿7-Stigmastenol, ⊿22-Stigmastenol
Pharmacological effects Crude saponin fraction: Suppression of central nervous system, analgesic, antitussive, antifebrile, antiinflammatory, inhibition of stress ulcer, diuresis. Saikogenin A: suppression of central nervous system, analgesic, antitussive, antifebrile, antiinflammatory. Methanol soluble and water soluble fractions: analgesic, antiulcer. Saikogenin A, D: antiinflammatory, enhancement of protein synthesis in the liver, increase of the amount of glycogen in the liver, suppression of the increase in concentration of cholesterol, triglycerol and phospholipids.
Indications As an antifebrile, antidote, painkiller, and antiinflammatory drug, it is applied to treat discomfort in the hypochondrium, alternate chills and fever such as malaria, jaundice, chronic hepatitis, chronic nephritis, metabolism disorder. it is known as a main medicine for "Shaoyang" disease.
Diseases Liver cirrhosis, Fever, Alternating cold and fever, Feeling of bitter in the mouth, Depression, Restlessness, Pain due to flatulence of hypochondrium, Irregular menstruation, Hematochezia due to proctoptosis, Descent of the uterus
Formulas en'nenhangeto , ogibekkoto , otsujito , otsujitokyodaio , kairosan , kamikihito , kamigedokuto , kamishoyosan , kamishoyosankasenkyujio , keigairengyoto , keibohaidokusan , saikatsugekito , saikatsutokasenkyushin'i , saikanto , saikyohangeto , saikokaboshoto , saikokaryukotsuboreito , saikokikitsuto , saikokeishikankyoto , saikokeishito , saikoseikanto , saikosokanto , saishakurikkunshito , saisoin , saibokuto , saireito , shigyakusan , shosaikoto , shosaikotokakikyosekko , shoyosan , shimpito , jiinshihoto , jijintsujito , jumihaidokuto , jofuto , jingyokyokatsuto , jingyobofuto , seikiankaito , seinetsuhoketsuto , daisaikoto , daisaikotokyodaio , chikujountanto , hochuekkito , yokukankashakuyaku , yokukansan , yokukansankashakuyakuoren , yokukansankachimpihange
Meridian tropism Pericardium, Liver, Triple energizer, Gall bladder
Property Slightly cold
Flavor Bitter
Classification in "Shen-non Ben-cao Jing" Superior
TCM: Classification Diaphoretics
TCM: Medicinal effects To relieve fever, to sooth the liver, lift up yang-energy.
Used for alternate chills and fever, malaria, hypochondriac pain, irregular menstruation, uterine prolapse, anal prolapse.
Remarks Listed in the Japanese Pharmacopoeia 18th ed.
References TN: T. Namba & Y. Tsuda ed., Outline of Pharmacognosy, a Textbook, 3rd ed., Nankodo Co., Ltd., Tokyo, 1998.
DNA sequences of medicinal plants
Gene Region
Nuclear Chloroplast Mitochondria
Botanical source: Plant name 5Ss 18S ITS1 5.8S ITS2 26S others trnH-psbA matK trnK trnK-rps16 trnT-L trnL trnL-F rbcL rpoC1 ndhF others
Bupleurum falcatum Linné (IPNI:839147-1)
Bupleurum chinense De Candolle (IPNI:839099-1)


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Section of Pharmacognosy,
Division of Medicinal Resources,
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Institute of Natural Medicine,
University of Toyama
2630 Sugitani, Toyama 930-0194 Japan
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