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Red Ginseng
Red Ginseng
Market name:紅参
Photo location:Museum of Materia Medica, Inst. of Nat. Med.
TMPW No.:8907
Panax ginseng
Plant name:Panax ginseng
Photo location:Yunnan Prov., China
Photo date:1999
Photographer:S. Yamaji

Latin name Ginseng Radix Rubra
Botanical source: Family name Araliaceae
Botanical source: Plant name Panax ginseng C.A.Meyer (IPNI:91472-1)
Part used Root, after being steamed
Empirical criteria for quality selection Good one is fat and dense. The one which has liner soft parts in its internal is lower quality (TN).
Constituents Other aliphatic and related compounds:
Panaxynol, Panaxydol, Heptadece-1-en-4,6-diyn-3,9-diol

D-Glucose, D-Fructose

Trisaccharide A, Trisaccharide B, Trisaccharide C

Panacene, β-Elemene

Triterpenoid saponins:
Ginsenoside R0, Ginsenoside Ra1, Ginsenoside Ra2, Ginsenoside Rb1, Ginsenoside Rb2, Ginsenoside Rb3, Ginsenoside Rc, Ginsenoside Rd, Ginsenoside Re, Ginsenoside Rf, Ginsenoside Rg1, Ginsenoside Rg2, Ginsenoside Rh, Oleanolic acid, (20S)-Protopanaxadiol, (20S)-Protopanaxatriol

β-Sitosterol, β-Sitosteryl-glucoside

Simple nitrogen containing compounds:

Vitamin B-Group
Pharmacological effects Not known
Indications Not known
Diseases Lack of energy, Coldness of limbs, Fatigable, Anorexia, Muddy and watery stool, Visceroptosis, Descent of the uterus, Proctoptosis, Diarrhea, Dyspnea, Cough, Shortness of breath, High fever, Thirst, Spontaneous sweating, Hyperhidrosis, Polyuria, Anxiety, Insomnia, Palpitation, Amnesia
Meridian tropism Lung, Spleen, Heart
Property Slightly warm
Flavor Sweet, Slightly bitter
Classification in "Shen-non Ben-cao Jing" Superior
TCM: Classification Qi tonics (Drugs for replenishing Qi [vital energy])
TCM: Medicinal effects To replenish vital essence, promote blood circulation and relieve collapse and to reinforce qi and to stanch bleeding.
Remarks Listed in the Japanese Pharmacopoeia 18th ed.
References TN: T. Namba & Y. Tsuda ed., Outline of Pharmacognosy, a Textbook, 3rd ed., Nankodo Co., Ltd., Tokyo, 1998.
DNA sequences of medicinal plants
Gene Region
Nuclear Chloroplast Mitochondria
Botanical source: Plant name 5Ss 18S ITS1 5.8S ITS2 26S others trnH-psbA matK trnK trnK-rps16 trnT-L trnL trnL-F rbcL rpoC1 ndhF others
Panax ginseng C.A.Meyer (IPNI:91472-1)


Information on genetic analysis

Metabolism information on chemical compounds included in crude drugs

Traditional Medical & Pharmaceutical Database

Section of Pharmacognosy,
Division of Medicinal Resources,
Department of Research and Development,
Institute of Natural Medicine,
University of Toyama
2630 Sugitani, Toyama 930-0194 Japan
TEL: +81-76-434-7601
FAX: +81-76-434-5064