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Astragalus Root
Astragalus Root
Market name:黄耆
Photo location:Museum of Materia Medica, Inst. of Nat. Med.
TMPW No.:21546
Astragalus membranaceus
Plant name:Astragalus membranaceus
Photo location:Ovorkhangai Prov., Mongolia
Photo date:2006
Photographer:K. Komatsu

Latin name Astragali Radix
Botanical source: Family name Leguminosae
Botanical source: Plant name - Astragalus membranaceus Bunge (IPNI:478611-1)
- Astragalus mongholicus Bunge (IPNI:478720-1)
Part used Root
Empirical criteria for quality selection Good one is thick and columnar like a rod. The outside is pale brown or yellowish brown, and the inside is pale yellow with sweet aroma (TN).
Constituents Fatty acids:
Linoleic acid, Linoleinic acid

D-Glucose, D-Fructose


Triterpenoid saponins:
Astragaloside I, Astragaloside II, Astragaloside III, Astragaloside IV, Astragaloside V, Astragaloside VI, Astragaloside VII, Astragaloside VIII, Soyasaponin I


Formononetin, 3'-Hydroxyformononetin, 2',3'-Dihydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxyisoflavone, 7,3'-Dihydroxy-4'-methoxyisoflavone 7-Oglucoside, Astraisoflavan, 7,2'-Dihydroxy-3',4'-dimethoxyisoflavane
7-O-glucoside, Astrapterocarpan 7-hydroxy-3',4'-dimethoxypterocarpan 7-O-glucoside, Isoliquiritigenin

Amino acids:
I-Canavanine, Betaine, γ-Aminobutyric acid

Other nitrogen containing compounds:
Pharmacological effects Diuretic and hypotensive (water extract and ethanol extract)
Indications As a tonic, cardiotonic, diuretic and anhidrotic, it is applied to treat valetudinarianism, dystrophy, dysfunction of sweating and acute or chronic nephritis.
Diseases Lack of energy, Fatigable, Shortness of breath, Anorexia, Chill, Descent of the uterus, Chronic diarrhea, Hematochezia, Irregular vaginal bleeding, Numbness, Partial paralysis, Night sweats, Pyogenic dermatosis, Edema, Spontaneous sweating, Proctoptosis, Polyposia, Polyuria, Internal bleeding, Acute nephritis, Chronic nephropathy, Proteinuria, Diabetes mellitus
Formulas ishoho , ogikeishigomotsuto , ogikenchuto , ogibekkoto , kamikihito , kigikenchuto , kihito , keishikaogito , shikonboreito , shichimotsukokato , juzentaihoto , jurokumiryukiin , jingyokyokatsuto , seishoekkito , seishinrenshiin , senkin'naitakusan , takurishodokuin , daibofuto , tokiinshi , tokishakuyakusankaogichoto , tokito , ninjin'yoeito , hangebyakujutsutemmato , fuhishomyakusan , hochuekkito , hoyokangoto , boiogito , boibukuryoto , reitakutsukito , reitakutsukitokashin'i
Meridian tropism Spleen, Lung
Property Slightly warm
Flavor Sweet
Classification in "Shen-non Ben-cao Jing" Superior
TCM: Classification Tonics (Drugs for replenishing Qi [vital energy])
TCM: Medicinal effects To reinforce qi and strengthen the superficial resistance, to promote the discharge of pus and growth of new tissue.
Used for deficiency of qi with lack of strength, anorexia and loose stools, sinking of the spleen's qi, chronic diarrhea and prolapse of the rectum, hematochezia and abnormal uterine bleeding, spontaneous sweating due to weakened superficial resistance, edema due to deficiency of qi, abscess difficult to burst or heal, anemia, diabetes caused by internal heat, albuminuria in chronic nephritis, diabetes mellitus.
Remarks Listed in the Japanese Pharmacopoeia 18th ed.
Astragalus Root is the chief of tonifying drugs. It tonifies the qi of exterior (skin, hypodermis), and is applied for insufficiency syndrome in the exterior. On the contrary, Ginseng tonifies the qi of the Five Viscera and is applied for deficiency syndrome in the interior. Excess use of Huangqi causes itching paresthesia and rash. In China, Junpi or Hongqui, the root of Hedysarum polybotrys Hand.-Mazz., is most appreciated.
References TN: T. Namba & Y. Tsuda ed., Outline of Pharmacognosy, a Textbook, 3rd ed., Nankodo Co., Ltd., Tokyo, 1998.
DNA sequences of medicinal plants
Gene Region
Nuclear Chloroplast Mitochondria
Botanical source: Plant name 5Ss 18S ITS1 5.8S ITS2 26S others trnH-psbA matK trnK trnK-rps16 trnT-L trnL trnL-F rbcL rpoC1 ndhF others
Astragalus mongholicus Bunge (IPNI:478720-1)
Astragalus membranaceus Bunge (IPNI:478611-1)


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Section of Pharmacognosy,
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Institute of Natural Medicine,
University of Toyama
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