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Market name:直参
Photo location:Museum of Materia Medica, Inst. of Nat. Med.
TMPW No.:15
Panax ginseng
Plant name:Panax ginseng
Photo location:Yunnan Prov., China
Photo date:1999
Photographer:K. Komatsu

Latin name Ginseng Radix
Botanical source: Family name Araliaceae
Botanical source: Plant name Panax ginseng C.A.Meyer (IPNI:91472-1)
Part used Root
Empirical criteria for quality selection A high quality Ginseng has long root with big branch and long rhizome. The one of excessive sweetness is lower quality. (NI)
Constituents Other aliphatic and related compounds:
Panaxynol, Panaxydol, Heptadece-1-en-4,6-diyn-3,9-diol

D-Glucose, D-Fructose, Sucrose, Maltose, Trisaccharide A, Trisaccharide B, Trisaccharide C

Panacene, β-Elemene

Oleanolic acid, (20S)-Protopanaxadiol, (20S)-Protopanaxatriol

Triterpenoid saponins:
Ginsenoside Ro, Ginsenoside Ra1, Ginsenoside Ra2, Ginsenoside Rb1, Ginsenoside Rb2, Ginsenoside Rb3, Ginsenoside Rc, Ginsenoside Rd, Ginsenoside Re, Ginsenoside Rf, Ginsenoside Rg1, Ginsenoside Rg2, Ginsenoside Rh, Ginsenoside La (leaves), 24(S)-Pseudoginsenoside F11, Pseudoginsenoside Rc1

β-Sitosterol, β-Sitosterylglucoside

Simple nitrogen containing compounds:

Vitamin B
Pharmacological effects Water extract: hypoglycemic, decreases blood ketones, enhances RNA synthesis in the liver. Ethanol extract: enhances cholinergic action, antihypertensive, accelerates breathing, hypoglycemic, increases red blood cells, promotes digestive motion, enhances adrenocortical function. Saponin fraction: stimulates central nervous system, reduces stress, effects the central nerve function (Rb group, sedation; Re group, excitation).
Indications Widely used as a tonic, cardiotonic, replenishing vital essence, tranquilizer, stomachic and anti-fatigue drug. It is used to treat the decline of metabolism by gastric weakness. It is applied to invalid's gastric stagnation, indigestion, nausea, chest pain, relaxant diarrhea and lack of appetite.
Diseases Tiredness, Weak constitution, Decline of strength after illness, General malaise, Dyspnea, Shortness of breath, Thirst, Amnesia, Palpitation, Anxiety
Formulas ifuto , unkeito , en'nenhangeto , ogibekkoto , orento , ompito , kaikyushokushoto , kashokuyohito , kamiuntanto , kamikihito , kamishimotsuto , kankyooren'ogon'ninjinto , kankyoninjinhangegan , kanzoshashinto , kippichikujoto , kihito , kyutsugan , keishikashakuyakushokyoninjinto , keishininjinto , keihito , gedaishimotsutokami , koshayoito , kosharikkunshito , kobokushokyohangeninjinkanzoto , goshuyuto , saikanto , saikokaboshoto , saikokaryukotsuboreito , saikokeishito , saishakurikkunshito , saisoin , saibokuto , saireito , shigyakukaninjinto , shikunshito , shakanzoto , shokyoshashinto , shosaikoto , shosaikotokakikyosekko , shozokumeito , jijinmeimokuto , juzentaihoto , jurokumiryukiin , jofuto , jinsoin , jinryobyakujutsusan , seikiankaito , seishoekkito , seishinrenshiin , seinetsuhokito , senkin'naitakusan , sempukukataishasekito , zenshikunshito , zenshibyakujutsusan , zosonmokuboito , zokumeito , takurishodokuin , daikenchuto , daihangeto , daibofuto , chikujountanto , chikuyosekkoto , chukenchuto , chotosan , tokishakuyakusankaninjin , tokito , nyoshinsan , ninjinto , ninjin'yoeito , hachigesan , hangeshashinto , hangebyakujutsutemmato , bakumondoto , byakkokaninjinto , fuhishomyakusan , bukuryoin , bukuryoinkahange , bukuryoingohangekobokuto , bukuryoshigyakuto , bushito , bushirichuto , hokikenchuto , hochuekkito , hontonto (chugoho) , mokuboikyosekkokabukuryoboshoto , mokuboito , rikkunshito
Meridian tropism Lung, Spleen
Property Slightly warm
Flavor Sweet, Slightly bitter
Classification in "Shen-non Ben-cao Jing" Superior
TCM: Classification Tonics
TCM: Medicinal effects To tonify the original qi greatly, resume pulse and secure collapse, tonify spleen and replenish kidney, engender fluid and nourish blood, tranquilize the mind and replenish wisdom.
Being just going to collapse caused by body deficiency, cold limbs and faint pulse, low appetite caused by spleen deficiency, dyspnea and cough caused by lung deficiency, thirsty caused by fluid damage, interior heat and wasting-thirst, deficiency of qi and blood, frail caused by long-term illness, fright palpitations and insomnia, impotence and uterine coldness.
Remarks Listed in the Japanese Pharmacopoeia 18th ed.
References NI: N. Isshiki, Methods of Quality Evaluation and Preparation of Wakan-yaku, Tohodo Shoten, Tokyo, 1987.
DNA sequences of medicinal plants
Gene Region
Nuclear Chloroplast Mitochondria
Botanical source: Plant name 5Ss 18S ITS1 5.8S ITS2 26S others trnH-psbA matK trnK trnK-rps16 trnT-L trnL trnL-F rbcL rpoC1 ndhF others
Panax ginseng C.A.Meyer (IPNI:91472-1)


Information on genetic analysis

Metabolism information on chemical compounds included in crude drugs

Traditional Medical & Pharmaceutical Database

Section of Pharmacognosy,
Division of Medicinal Resources,
Department of Research and Development,
Institute of Natural Medicine,
University of Toyama
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